CCIE Bootcamp: OSPF dan IPv6

Hari ke-3 dibahas tentang OSPF dan IPv6, untuk materi ini akan saya gabungkan menjadi satu topologi. Saya akan menjalankan OSPF dengan IPv4 dan IPv6 pada topologi hub and spoke di frame relay. IPv4 akan menggunakan tipe broadcast sedangkan IPv6 akan menggunakan tipe non-broadcast.

Konfigurasi Frame Relay Switch sama dengan yang digunakan pada lab RIP di tulisan sebelumnya.

 

OSPF dengan IPv4

Konfigurasi R1:

interface Loopback0
 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface Serial0/0
 ip address 123.123.123.1 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0

 

Konfigurasi R2:

interface Loopback0
 ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
!
interface Serial0/0
 ip address 123.123.123.2 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0

 

Konfigurasi R3:

interface Loopback0
 ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
!
interface Serial0/0
 ip address 123.123.123.3 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0

 

Dengan konfigurasi awal ini mari kita lihat proses OSPF-nya apakah sudah ada koneksi dengan neighbor.

R1#sh ip ospf neighbor
R1#

 

Ternyata belum ada neighbor, mari kita lihat konfigurasi OSPF untuk interface s0/0.

R1#sh ip ospf interface s0/0
Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up
 Internet Address 123.123.123.1/24, Area 0
 Process ID 1, Router ID 1.1.1.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 64
 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1
 Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 123.123.123.1
 No backup designated router on this network

 

Tipe network-nya ternyata non-broadcast, OSPF menggunakan multicast untuk mencari neighbor untuk ini kita harus mengubah tipe network menjadi broadcast di masing-masing router.

R1(config)#int s0/0
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R2(config)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R3(config)#int s0/0
R3(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast

 

Tunggu sampai muncul notifikasi neighbor.

R1(config-if)#
*Mar 1 01:35:36.203: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on Serial0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*Mar 1 01:35:38.451: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Serial0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

 

Sekarang mari kita cek lagi status neighbor.

R1#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
2.2.2.2 1 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:32 123.123.123.2 Serial0/0
3.3.3.3 1 FULL/DR 00:00:39 123.123.123.3 Serial0/0

 

Dari informasi di atas kita melihat bahwa R3 menjadi DR untuk area 0. Pada topologi hub and spoke, DR harus dimiliki oleh hub yaitu R1. Kita bisa mengubah DR menggunakan perintah ip ospf priority, dimana 255 adalah prioritas paling tinggi dan 0 berarti router tidak akan ikut serta pada pemilihan DR/BDR.

R1(config)#int s0/0
R1(config-if)#ip ospf priority 255
R2(config)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0
R3(config)#int s0/0
R3(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0

 

Kita cek lagi status neighbor-nya.

R1#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
2.2.2.2 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:36 123.123.123.2 Serial0/0
3.3.3.3 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:35 123.123.123.3 Serial0/0
R2#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
1.1.1.1 255 FULL/DR 00:00:30 123.123.123.1 Serial0/0
R3#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
1.1.1.1 255 FULL/DR 00:00:34 123.123.123.1 Serial0/0

 

Sepertinya semua sudah ok, mari kita cek route-nya.

R1#sh ip route
 1.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 1.1.1.1 is directly connected, Loopback0
 2.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 2.2.2.2 [110/65] via 123.123.123.2, 00:02:15, Serial0/0
 3.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 3.3.3.3 [110/65] via 123.123.123.3, 00:05:46, Serial0/0
 123.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 123.123.123.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0
R2#sh ip route
 1.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 1.1.1.1 [110/65] via 123.123.123.1, 00:02:13, Serial0/0
 2.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 2.2.2.2 is directly connected, Loopback0
 3.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 3.3.3.3 [110/65] via 123.123.123.3, 00:02:13, Serial0/0
 123.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 123.123.123.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0
R3#sh ip route
 1.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 1.1.1.1 [110/65] via 123.123.123.1, 00:05:37, Serial0/0
 2.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 2.2.2.2 [110/65] via 123.123.123.2, 00:02:01, Serial0/0
 3.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 3.3.3.3 is directly connected, Loopback0
 123.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 123.123.123.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0

 

Sepertinya ok juga, mari kita ping tiap loopback dari masing-masing router.

R1#ping 2.2.2.2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/9/20 ms
R1#ping 3.3.3.3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 3.3.3.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/8 ms
R2#ping 1.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms
R2#ping 3.3.3.3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 3.3.3.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R3#ping 1.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/5/12 ms
R3#ping 2.2.2.2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

 

Kalau kita lihat informasi route di R2, next hop untuk 3.3.3.3 adalah 123.123.123.3, kita cek pemetaan dari frame relay.

R2#sh frame-relay map
Serial0/0 (up): ip 123.123.123.1 dlci 201(0xC9,0x3090), dynamic,
 broadcast,, status defined, active
R2#ping 123.123.123.3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 123.123.123.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R3#sh frame-relay map
Serial0/0 (up): ip 123.123.123.1 dlci 301(0x12D,0x48D0), dynamic,
 broadcast,, status defined, active
R3#ping 123.123.123.2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 123.123.123.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

 

Hanya IP serial R1 yang dikenali oleh R2 dan R3 sehingga kita harus tambahkan frame relay map antara R2 dan R3.

R2(config)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 123.123.123.3 201
R3(config)#int s0/0
R3(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 123.123.123.2 301

 

Sekarang mari kita ping kembali.

R2#ping 3.3.3.3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 3.3.3.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms
R3#ping 2.2.2.2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms

 

OSPF dengan IPv6

Sekarang kita akan menambahkan IPv6 ke topologi sebelumnya dan tidak perlu menghapus konfigurasi IPv4. Implementasi ini biasa disebut Dual-Stack IPv4 dan IPv6 untuk transisi dari IPv4 ke IPv6.

Konfigurasi R1:

ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Loopback0
 ipv6 address 1::1/128
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
interface Serial0/0
 ipv6 address FE80::1 link-local
 ipv6 address 123::1/64
 ipv6 ospf network broadcast
 ipv6 ospf priority 255
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 1.1.1.1

 

Konfigurasi R2:

ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Loopback0
 ipv6 address 2::2/128
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
interface Serial0/0
 ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local
 ipv6 address 123::2/64
 ipv6 ospf network broadcast
 ipv6 ospf priority 255
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 2.2.2.2

 

Konfigurasi R3:

ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Loopback0
 ipv6 address 3::3/128
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
interface Serial0/0
 ipv6 address FE80::3 link-local
 ipv6 address 123::3/64
 ipv6 ospf network broadcast
 ipv6 ospf priority 255
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 3.3.3.3

 

Kalau kita lihat di atas ada dua IPv6 yang dikonfigurasi yaitu alamat link-local dan global unicast. Frame relay dan OSPF menggunakan link-local untuk berkomunikasi antar router. Pada topologi di atas alamat link-local tidak dapat digunakan untuk berkomunikasi dengan loopback, karena loopback menggunakan alamat global unicast maka diperlukan alamat global unicast untuk saling berkomunikasi. Kita lihat konfigurasi OSPF di interface s0/0.

R1#sh ipv6 ospf int s0/0
Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up
 Link Local Address FE80::1, Interface ID 6
 Area 0, Process ID 1, Instance ID 0, Router ID 1.1.1.1
 Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 64
 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 255
 Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, local address FE80::1

 

Kita lihat status neighbor.

R1#sh ipv6 ospf neighbor
R1#

 

Ternyata belum ada neighbor, di sini kita harus menambahkan frame relay map untuk alamat link-local dan global unicast.

Di R1

interface Serial0/0
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::2 102 broadcast
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::2 102
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::3 103 broadcast
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::3 103

 

Di R2

interface Serial0/0
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::1 201 broadcast
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::1 201
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::3 201
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::3 201

 

Di R3

interface Serial0/0
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::1 301 broadcast
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::1 301
 frame-relay map ipv6 FE80::2 301
 frame-relay map ipv6 123::2 301

 

Sekarang kita cek lagi status neighbor-nya.

R1#sh ipv6 ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Interface ID Interface
3.3.3.3 255 FULL/DR 00:00:34 6 Serial0/0
2.2.2.2 255 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:38 6 Serial0/0

 

Ternyata R1 belum menjadi DR, kita tambahkan kembali ipv6 ospf priority.

R1(config)#int s0/0
R1(config-if)# ipv6 ospf priority 255
R2(config-if)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf priority 0
R3(config-if)#int s0/0
R3(config-if)#ipv6 ospf priority 0

 

Lalu kita cek hasilnya.

R1#sh ipv6 ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Interface ID Interface
3.3.3.3 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:31 6 Serial0/0
2.2.2.2 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:33 6 Serial0/0
R2#sh ipv6 ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Interface ID Interface
1.1.1.1 255 FULL/DR 00:00:37 6 Serial0/0
R3#sh ipv6 ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Interface ID Interface
1.1.1.1 255 FULL/DR 00:00:32 6 Serial0/0

 

Sekarang mari kita ping.

R1#ping 2::2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2::2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/4 ms
R1#ping 3::3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 3::3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/4 ms
R2#ping 1::1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1::1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/2/4 ms
R2#ping 3::3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 3::3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/3/4 ms
R3#ping 1::1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1::1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/4 ms
R3#ping 2::2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2::2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/4 ms

 

Sekarang kita punya topologi yang menjalankan IPv4 dan IPv6 secara bersamaan.

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CCIE Bootcamp: Frame Relay

Tulisan ini merupakan rangkaian blog dari CCIE Bootcamp 9 hari yang diadakan oleh ID Networkers (bukan iklan loh!). Tulisan ini merupakan ringkasan dari materi yang penulis dapatkan pada hari sebelumnya dan untuk hari pertama membahas tentang Frame Relay.

Frame Relay adalah teknologi untuk menghubungkan perangkat dalam wide area network (WAN) menggunakan metode packet switching dan bekerja di physical dan data link layer pada OSI layers. Sebelum Frame Relay dapat mengirimkan paket data, Frame Relay membutuhkan informasi yang memetakan antara alamat data link layer (L2) dan network layer (L3). Ada dua metoda untuk pemetaan ini yaitu pemetaan secara dinamis maupun statis (dynamic and static mapping). Pemetaan secara dinamis bergantung pada Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (Inverse ARP) untuk menentukan alamat tujuan berdasarkan DLCI.

Untuk menghubungkan dua router menggunakan Frame Relay kita dapat menggunakan Frame Relay Switch, walaupun kita dapat menggunakan koneksi back to back tapi untuk kasus ini kita akan menggunakan Frame Relay Switch.

Frame Relay Topology

Konfigurasi Frame Relay Switch:

frame-relay switching
!
interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
 clock rate 2000000
 frame-relay intf-type dce
 frame-relay route 102 interface Serial0/1 201
!
interface Serial0/1
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
 clock rate 2000000
 frame-relay intf-type dce
 frame-relay route 201 interface Serial0/0 102

 

Dynamic Mapping
Dengan pemetaan dinamis kita cukup memberikan alamat IP dan set enkapsulasi interface sebagai Frame Relay.

Konfigurasi R1:

interface Serial0/0
 ip address 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay

 

Static Mapping
Pemetaan dengan Inverse ARP akan di-override oleh pemetaan statis.

Konfigurasi R2:

interface Serial0/0
 ip address 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay
 frame-relay map ip 12.12.12.1 201 broadcast

 

Parameter broadcast di atas berguna untuk melewatkan paket multicast yang digunakan oleh routing protocol.

 

Frame Relay pada Sub Interface
Selain pada interface utama, Frame Relay juga dapat digunakan pada sub interface.

Konfigurasi Frame Relay pada sub interface:

Dynamic Mapping (R1)

interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
interface Serial0/0.1 multipoint
 ip address 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
 frame-relay interface-dlci 102

 

Static Mapping (R2)

interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
interface Serial0/0.1 multipoint
 ip address 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
 frame-relay map ip 12.12.12.1 201 broadcast

 

Kita dapat menggunakan kombinasi pemetaan dinamis dan statis untuk tiap router.
Pada sub interface ada dua mode yang dapat digunakan, dengan mode multipoint dan point to point.

Catatan: Dengan mode point to point kita tidak dapat menggunakan static mapping.

R1(config-subif)#frame-relay map ip 12.12.12.2 102 broadcast
 Only frame-relay interface-dlci command should beused on point-to-point interfaces not frame-relay map

 

Tips: Kita tidak dapat mengubah secara langsung dari mode multipoint ke point to point, untuk ini kita bisa menggunakan perintah default. Jangan lupa untuk mencatat konfigurasi sebelumnya!

R1(config)#int s0/0.1 point-to-point
% Warning: cannot change link type

R1(config)#default interface s0/0
Building configuration...
Interface Serial0/0 set to default configuration

 

Konfigurasi Frame Relay pada sub interface dengan mode point to point di R1:

interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
!
interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point
 ip address 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
 frame-relay interface-dlci 102

 

Verifikasi
Untuk memastikan kalau Frame Relay sudah berjalan kita bisa menggunakan perintah show frame-relay map atau show frame-relay pvc.

R1#sh frame-relay map
Serial0/0 (up): ip 12.12.12.2 dlci 102(0x66,0x1860), dynamic,
 broadcast,, status defined, active

R1#sh frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial0/0 (Frame Relay DTE)
Active Inactive Deleted Static
 Local 1 0 0 0
 Switched 0 0 0 0
 Unused 0 0 0 0
DLCI = 102, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial0/0
input pkts 1 output pkts 1 in bytes 34
 out bytes 34 dropped pkts 0 in pkts dropped 0
 out pkts dropped 0 out bytes dropped 0
 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0
 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0
 out bcast pkts 1 out bcast bytes 34
 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
 pvc create time 00:00:57, last time pvc status changed 00:00:47

 

Dan tentu saja ping 😀

R1#ping 12.12.12.2
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 12.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/6/16 ms